The main component of the mass for ceramic tiles is clay, which is formed as a result of the erosion of rocks containing feldspar (such as granite) under the influence of wind, water and seasonal temperature changes. This erosion occurred during the Tertiary Era millions of years ago.

Clay is composed of fine-grained minerals, with clay minerals (layered silicates) giving it its plastic properties.

Given the special requirements for the ceramics production process and the products themselves, other raw materials need to be mixed with clay (50-70%), such as feldspar (15-25%), chamotte (10-20%), and kaolin (0-10%).

Processing involves homogeneous mixing of all components. The resulting mass is further processed as part of the ceramic production process.

When forming tiles, there are basically two methods: on the one hand, dry pressing is used, and on the other hand, extrusion is used. During the molding process, the prepared mass, either in granulate or plasticized form, is pushed into a mold under very high pressure.